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The Salesforce Operating, Governance & Architecture Framework (SOGAF) applies the MIT-CISR Enterprise Architecture Framework to Salesforce implementations and programs.


An operating model has two dimensions: business process standardization and business process integration. Standardization of business processes and related systems means defining exactly how a process will be executed. An operating model delivers efficiency and predictability across the company.

Integration of business processes links the efforts of organizational units though shared data. This sharing of data can be between processes to enable end-to-end transaction processing, or across processes to allow the company to present a unified experience to customers. The benefits of business process integration include increased efficiency, coordination, transparency, and agility.

Operating Model Types

There are four types of operating models in SOGAF:

The appropriate operating model will depend on the level of business process standardization and on the level of data integration required. The operating model will drive the technical capabilities required to deliver efficiency and predictability across the company, as shown below:

Four types of business operating models

How to select an operating model

The choice is based on whether your business processes are the same and whether data is shared across business units as shown in this decision tree. The highlighted squares indicate the two operating models that should be evaluated for each scenario. In practice, companies tend to sit on a continuum between two of the four models.

Operating model decision tree

About the Contributors

Martin Griffiths is a Business Architect Director at Salesforce, with an Anglo-French background and based in Paris, France. Martin joined Salesforce 5 years ago. His 30-year career in CRM, ERP and digital transformation spans business consulting, enterprise architecture and program delivery roles. His focus is advising customers on complex Salesforce-based transformations, operating models and architecture, applying academic frameworks to guide decision-making and address governance at scale topics successfully.

You can connect with Martin Griffiths on LinkedIn.